Let’s talk about the hazards and protection of static electricity (ESD) during SMT chip processing

With the rapid development of electronic technology, SMT processing technology for electronic products has matured in our country. As electronic products become more and more precise and miniaturized, this means that PCBA lines will become narrower and narrower, and their electrostatic discharge capabilities will become worse and worse. As a result, the requirements for electronic components to protect against static electricity in SMT chip processing and production are getting higher and higher. , which undoubtedly brings more difficulties and challenges to the electrostatic protection of SMT processing.

1. Causes of static electricity during SMT chip processing

1. The manufacturing of electronic products starts from SMT processing of components to the assembly of finished products, and production equipment, processing tools, operating environment, packaging materials, etc. may all come into contact with electronic devices. Contact, separation, friction, induction, etc. between components and objects will generate static electricity.

2. In the manufacturing process of electronic products, most of the electronic components processed by SMT are semiconductor materials. From semiconductor materials to final assembly, it goes through multiple links such as circuit board production, SMT processing, assembly, and testing. In any link, problems may occur. static electricity.

3. Although the production of modern electronic products is becoming more and more automated, the entire manufacturing process is inseparable from human operations. Compared with processing equipment, operators are exposed to a wider and more complex range of electronic components, so the static electricity generated by the human body is much more complex than that of the equipment and environment.

2. The harm of static electricity in the SMT chip processing process

1. When the PCBA is welded through SMT patch processing, even if the PCBA is not loaded with electricity, the components welded on the PCBA may be damaged due to the presence of static electricity. As we all know, SMT-processed products are semiconductors. If the voltage between two or more pins of a component exceeds the breakdown strength of the component’s dielectric, the component will be damaged.

2. The pulse energy of static electricity can cause local PCBA or component heating, so there may be the possibility of direct breakdown of components and ICs. This failure can occur even if the voltage is below the breakdown voltage of the dielectric. After the electronic components themselves or the ICs in the driver PCBA are affected by static electricity, functional damage may not occur immediately. These potentially damaged components usually show up during use, so they have an impact on the life of the PCBA. All are fatal.

3. Protection against static electricity during SMT chip processing

(1) During the SMT processing process, SMT operators are required to wear a grounded electrostatic bracelet. Especially in processes that involve long-term contact with PCBA, and quality personnel must conduct an electrostatic bracelet test no less than every 4 hours.

(2) When manually welding PCBA, the soldering iron should be an anti-static low-voltage constant-temperature soldering iron as much as possible, and maintain good contact with the static wire.

(3) During the assembly process of the finished PCBA, use a low-voltage DC electric batch with a grounded wire as much as possible.

(4) Ensure that production line equipment, workbenches, shelves, static sheets, etc. are in contact with static wires.

(5) SMT chip processing factories should make separate wiring layouts for static wires instead of mixing ground wires with static wires. This is completely incorrect. The static wire needs to be in contact with the earth separately, and the ground wire is a grounding layout with zero live wire. Do not confuse them.

SMT processing technology is a technology commonly used in the field of PCBA-integrated manufacturing today. Static electricity, as a kind of electrical energy generated by friction induction, will cause serious harm to the SMT processing and manufacturing industry, especially to SSD devices on integrated circuit boards. Therefore, during the SMT manufacturing process, static electricity should be strictly protected. Establish a complete set of anti-static measures and systems within the enterprise, so as to effectively eliminate the generation and impact of static electricity in the entire production process and ensure the quality of SMT-processed products.

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